The DComm Blockchain Solution Overview
Selecting the technology – The platform layer
Research & Development
The management, executive and development teams completed rigorous research to identify technologies that best suits DComm’s strategy and objectives.
The assessment looked at the technologies’ ability to deliver:
- Tokenization of real-world assets
- Scalability to meet forecast demand
- Low cost of running for both network and community
- Asset creation, exchange and management of digital assets e.g. NFTs, smart contracts, complex algorithms
- Lateral autonomous side chains
- Ease of community adoption
The shortlisted technologies include Avalanche, Lisk and substrate models. After a series of technical assessments, readiness, and chain balancing tests, Avalanche was identified as the most suitable technology base to rebuild and re-engineer the DComm platform from.
Development, Design & Refactoring
Development was undertaken utilising a core team to deliver the blockchain and suite of associated tools. In addition, a full user experience (UX), user interface (UI) and branding exercise was completed.
The key teams include:
- An eighteen strong Development team, made up of seasoned blockchain experts
- A technically focused Executive team leading the result driven development
- An exceptionally talented UX/UI Design team
- An experienced Branding team
At the start of the project, DComm created and established a Continuous Improvement Team made up of blockchain, software, infrastructure, and development experts.
Key areas for continuous improvement include:
- Node structure, types and use cases
- Web extensions
- Bespoke services and APIs
- Consensus and hashing
The DComm platform
The DComm platform is a carefully selected architecture that has all the attributes that are a minimum requirement for real-world asset tokenization – scale, speed, security, efficiency, low cost and interoperability.
This is achieved by implementing three chains across the platform, each running its own consensus, each independent, yet all functioning together as a platform. By decoupling these chains functions and activities, an inherent level of real-world asset structure is formed. Assets can be created and not be affected by high volume transactions, the functions of subnets and chain authority are catered for in a separate chain, and not impacted by either assets being exchanged, smart contracts being deployed or transactions on the network.
Platform Technical Details
 For accuracy and acknowledgement of the origins of DComm, this section has been redrafted primarily from the reference attached. Ref: 2, Avalanche Platform 2020/06/30 Kevin Sekniqi, Daniel Laine, Stephen Buttolph, and Emin G¨un Sirer
DComm has adopted the Snow family of protocols after Avalanche introduced them in 2020. These combine the best properties of classic consensus protocols like Nakamoto (Bitcoin) with new developments in technology. The protocols achieve low latency and high throughput without needing to agree on the system’s precise membership, thanks to lightweight network sampling. They can scale to accommodate thousands or millions of users directly participating in the network, the protocols do not make use of PoW (Proof of Work) and therefore is substantially more energy efficient. This leads to a lightweight and green network ecosystem.
DComm’s design is massively scalable and robust. The core consensus engine can support a global network of potentially hundreds of millions of low and high-powered, internet-connected devices that operate seamlessly.
DComm’s design is unwaivering and achieves high security. Classical consensus protocols are designed to withstand up to f attackers but fail completely when faced with an attack larger than f+1. Nakamoto Consensus provides no security at all if 51% of the miners are Byzantine.
In contrast, by creating parameters within the system, DComm provides a strong guarantee of safety when the attacker remains below a certain threshold. If the attacker exceeds this threshold, the protocol can instead degrade in a controlled manner. It can uphold safety (but not liveness) guarantees even when the attacker exceeds 51%. DComm follows Avalanche in running a permissionless system that guarantees strong security.
DComm’s design, and this is echoed in its tokenomics, provides unprecedented decentralisation. There is a commitment to no centralised control of any kind. Fundamentally an avoidance of divisions of any kind between classes of users with different interests. This is achieved by ensuring there is no distinction between miners, developers, and users.
Governable & democratic
$DCM is a highly inclusive platform, which enables anyone to connect to its network and participate in validation and first-hand governance. The evolution of the platform is controlled by any token holder, by selecting key financial parameters, through a voting mechanism.
Interoperable & flexible
DComm is designed to be a universal and flexible infrastructure for a multitude of blockchains/assets, where the base $DCM is used for security and as a unit for exchange. The system is intended to support many blockchains being built, independently on top of the platform. The platform is designed to make it easy to port existing blockchains. This is accomplished by support for using various scripting languages, virtual machines, and multiple deployment scenarios.
Permissionless, open to churn & robust
For the most part, blockchain projects employ classical consensus protocols and therefore require the network to recognise all its participants. Knowing the entire set of participants is sufficiently simple in closed, permissioned systems, but becomes increasingly hard in open, decentralised networks. This limitation is in fact a high security risk. In contrast, Snow* protocols maintain high safety guarantees even when there are well quantified discrepancies between the network views of any two nodes. Validators of Snow* protocols can validate without the network requiring to recognise all its participants
Scalable & decentralised
A core feature of the Snow* family is its ability to scale without sacrifice. Snow* protocols can scale to tens of thousands or millions of nodes, without delegation to subsets of validators. These protocols enjoy the best-in-class system decentralisation, allowing every node to fully validate. Direct continuous participation has deep implications for the security of the system. Almost every Proof of Stake protocol that attempts to scale to a large participant set, delegates validation to a subcommittee. As a chain is as strong as its weakest link, so is a protocol, in this case, as strong as its weakest subcommittee. In Snow-type protocols, every node operator has a first-hand say in the system, at all times, thus negating the need for subcommittees entirely. Sharding, is the distribution or splitting of one data set across multiple independent validators. Similarly, to a subcommittee, sharding is only as strong as it most corrupt independent shard. Therefore, neither subcommittee election nor sharding are desirable scaling strategies for blockchain platforms.
Unlike other voting-based systems, Snow* protocols achieve higher performance when the attack is small. Even under a large scale attach the system remains highly resilient.
Snow* protocols, unlike longest-chain protocols, doesn’t require the chain to be “in sync” to operate safely, and therefore prevent double-spends even in the face of forks. Theoretically, in Bitcoin, for example, if validator nodes aren’t totally in sync, it is possible to operate two independent forks of the Bitcoin network for prolonged periods of time, which would invalidate any transactions once the forks heal.
Snow* protocols typically reach finality in ≤ 1 second, which is in the top 1% of latency achievements. Even today, in 2022, many blockchains are unable to support business applications such as trading or daily retail payments. Waiting minutes for transaction finality is not acceptable, let alone hours, or in the case of congestion, even longer. Therefore, one of the most important, and yet highly overlooked properties of consensus protocols is the time to transaction finality.
Snow* protocols, which can build a linear chain or a Direct Acyclic Graph, reach thousands of transactions per second (5000+ TPS), while retaining full decentralisation. New blockchain solutions that claim high TPS typically trade off decentralization and security. Some projects report numbers from controlled, incredibly simple transactions, that have no bearing in real application, thus not true performance results.
$DCM has reported numbers that are taken from a fully implemented Avalanche network running on 2000 nodes on AWS, distributed across the globe on low-end machines. Higher performance results (10,000+ Transactions per second or TPS) could be achieved through higher bandwidth provision on each node as well as dedicated hardware for signature verification. An important note is that these are all measured at a base layer. A considerable improvement exists by introducing Layer-2 scaling solutions.
Subnets & Virtual Machines
A subnetwork, or subnet, is a dynamic set of validators working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of blockchains. Each blockchain can only be validated by one subnet. However, a subnet can validate more than that single blockchain. A validator may also be a member of multiple subnets. A subnet decides who may enter it and may require that its validators have certain properties. The DComm platform supports the creation and operation of multiple subnets. To create a new subnet or to join a subnet, one must pay a fee denominated in $DCM.
The subnet model offers several advantages such as:
- If a validator has no interest about the blockchains in each subnet, they can just avoid that subnet. This reduces network traffic and compute power required by the validators. Other blockchain projects require every validator to validate every transaction, even the ones that they have no interest in validating.
- Trust is created by each subnet deciding who may enter. Thus, one can create private subnets. In this scenario each blockchain in that subnet is validated only by a set of trusted validators.
- One can create a subnet where each validator requires certain properties or parameters. For example, one could create a subnet where each validator is in a certain jurisdiction, or where each validator is bound by some real-world contract. This may be beneficial for compliance reasons.
- There is one special subnet called the Default Subnet. It is validated by every validator. (That is, to validate any subnet, one must also validate the Default Subnet.) The Default Subnet validates a set of pre-defined blockchains, including the blockchain where $DCM thrives and is traded.
Each blockchain is an instance of a virtual machine (VM). A VM is a blueprint for a blockchain, much like a class is a blueprint for an object in an object-oriented programming language. The interface, state, and behaviour of a blockchain is defined by the VM. The following properties of a blockchain, and others, are defined by a VM:
- The contents of a block
- The state transition that occurs when a block is accepted
- The blockchain’s APIs and their endpoints
- The data that is persisted to disk
We say that a blockchain “uses” or “runs” a given VM. When creating a blockchain, one specifies the VM it runs, as well as the genesis state of the blockchain. A new blockchain can be created using a pre-existing VM, or a developer can code a new one. There can be many blockchains that run the same VM. Each blockchain, even those running the same VM, are logically independent from others and maintains its own state.
Core component layer
DComm’s blockchain has been designed specifically for real-world asset tokenization and DeFi. The underlying protocol is a 3rd generation blockchain with very high throughput, infinite scalability, and very low transaction costs.
In addition, the blockchain is powered by a core layer that caters to the various components for the real-world asset tokenization and DeFi.
Real-world asset compliance
The possession and trading of real-world assets comes with the regulatory and compliance requirements. The compliances need to be inbuilt into the token standard itself. DComm’s approach in this regard is decentralised identity that combines the real-world identity with the cryptographic identity and compliance standard encoded in the token standards.
Proof of assets protocol
The Proof of Assets protocol is the set of smart contracts and rules that enables the lifecycle management of the underlying assets including Proof of Ownership that ensures the clear title of the asset, Proof of Storage that ensures the underlying asset is well secured with on-chain provenance and storage, and the Proof of Peg, which ensures that the tokens in circulation are pegged 1:1 with the assets.
Real-world decentralised ID
The Decentralised Identity that combines the real-world identity with the cryptographic identity is the most suitable solution for real-world tokenized assets. The possession and trading of real-world assets require meeting the regulatory and compliance requirements including KYC, AML, FATCA, etc checks. DComm’s decentralised identity will allow seamless trading of real-world tokenized assets on the DeFi platforms like DEXs or lending platforms.
In addition, decentralised identity will also enable users to control the privacy of their data.
Blockchain interoperability allows different blockchain protocols to actively communicate with each other including token assets and data. The DComm interoperability bridge allows interoperability among the core chain and the subnet chains. It also allows the interoperability of assets with Ethereum blockchain. The standard will be extended further to achieve interoperability with more and more blockchain networks.
Zero knowledge proof
Privacy is one of the major requirements for widespread adoption of real-world asset tokenization and DeFi and adherence to compliances. The DComm Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) protocol enables blockchain projects to facilitate greater transaction throughput and protect user data while still being able to verify identities. Furthermore, this protocol supports complex computation and allows enterprises to adopt blockchain technology while protecting their intellectual property.
A non-custodial wallet is the core component of any decentralised network. DComm’s non-custodial wallet features support for multiple blockchain networks, and delegation and validating the blocks. Various advanced features like swap tokens, portfolio management, etc will be released as per the roadmap. The wallet is accessible across web and mobile devices.
Efficient primary and secondary markets of real-world tokenized assets require off-chain data, like price, which feeds into the smart contracts. DComm’s decentralised oracle network extends the functionality of blockchains by connecting smart contracts to real-world data, events, payments, and off-chain computation in a highly tamper-resistant and reliable manner.
In addition, the DComm blockchain will support all other decentralised oracle networks.
Decentralised Autonomous Organisations (DAOs) are essential to decentralised networks where governance tokens provide token holders with certain rights that influence a network’s direction. Decentralised governance brings voting and distribution of power and responsibilities on-chain. DComm’s focus on DAOs enables the DeFi and other projects to reach their full potential by becoming truly decentralised.
Stable coin (asset-backed)
Stablecoins are a type of digital asset whose value is tied to the value of a currency, a commodity, or any other financial instrument. So, for every stablecoin that is in circulation, a reserve of these real-world assets is maintained as collateral. Stablecoins offer the benefit of being non-volatile in nature. They are also useful for quick payments without the need of an intermediary. The support for stablecoins combined with the DComm’s Proof of Assets protocol will enable better trading opportunities, lending and borrowing and portfolio stability.